I hear you and get your frustration about deposits. We have to play by their rules but there are some things you can do.
Some hosts have said that they have every guest sign an offline agreement and maybe even collect a deposit outside of Air.
Or, take a look at what kinds of things are creating the security deposit issues and try to adjust at the front end. Before bad stuff can happen.
Are you renting to too many guests? Allowing parties or events? Not onsite to supervise? Have a camera outside to temper bad behavior? Have too many fragile items in the rental? Not saying you have any of this, just saying take a look. Because when there is a pattern sometimes it is YOU, not THEM.
When it does come time to make a claim, you have to follow their guidelines. Get all the receipts and estimates. The more documentation the better. Keep all your communication online so there is a paper trail. When you do make a claim, remember Judge Judy. She always rules with the side that has good documentation and a better case.